عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Muslims always showed great respect and admiration toward Ahl al-Bayt (a) especially Shi'a Imams. However Islamic governments after Prophet Muhammad's (s) did not treat people decently and with justice. They even prosecuted and suppressed supporters of Ahl al-Bayt (a). On the other hand, the infallibles treated them strategically so that they could handle the situation with the least possible conflicts and encounters; while a number of Shi'a Muslims often declared their intentions to rise against the government of the time. Ahl al-Bayt (a) knew bloodshed and tortures of Shi'a Muslims would be the result of such conflicts. Whereas regarding social and cultural situation of the time, they emphasized on specific aspects of religious thoughts and teachings.
Abbasid dynasty managed to attain caliphate by means of popularity and high status of Ahl al-Bayt (a), but when they came to power they acted against Shi'a Muslims so that they could achieve a more stable regime. Twelvers and Zaydis encountered with Abbasid with different strategies the former chose uprisings and the latter chose Taqiyya. In the time of Ma'mun, Shi'a Muslims were involved with activities and Ma'mun needed them as well, then Imam Al-Rida (a) was appointed as the Crown Prince. But he was martyred soon afterwards. His son, Imam Al-Jawad (a) was a child in that time, as a result there were debates and disagreements between Shi'a Muslims on Imamate of Shi'ites. Meanwhile the system of Wikala (the policy of appointing agents to manage religious affairs as well as making connections between Shi'a Muslims and Imam) was founded and developed and different Shi'ite sects were engaged with it, these situations made imamate era of Imam Al-Jawad (a) a crucial time for Shi'a Muslims and Ahl al-Bayt (a). Abbasid tried their best to confront such activities as well as development of Shi'ism, which were dealt cunningly by Imam Al-Jawad (a).
Regarding the evolution and changes of activities of Abbasid government, the present paper will represent the strategies applied by Imam Al-Jawad (a) and his supporters in political, social and cultural situation of the time as well as interactions between Shi'ites and Imam